Monday, March 23, 2015

duke university

Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892.[7] In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James B. Duke established The Duke Endowment, at which time the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke.
The university's campus spans over 8,600 acres (35 km2) on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort. Duke's main campus—designed largely by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot (64 m) Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. The first-year-populated East Campus contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles away is adjacent to the Medical Center.
Duke's research expenditures in the 2012 fiscal year were $1.01 billion, the seventh largest in the nation.[8] Competing in the Atlantic Coast Conference, Duke's athletic teams, known as the Blue Devils, have captured 15 team national championships, including four by its high profile men's basketball team.[9] Duke was ranked among the world's best universities by both THE[10] and QS,[11] while tying for 8th in the 2015 U.S. News & World Report "Best National Universities Rankings."[12] In 2014, Thomson Reuters named 32 Duke professors to its list of Highly Cited Researchers. The only schools with more primary affiliations were Harvard, Stanford, and UC Berkeley.[13]

History

Beginnings

Early 20th century black-and-white photo of three-story building
One of the first buildings on the original Durham campus (East Campus), the Washington Duke Building ("Old Main"), was destroyed by a fire in 1911.
Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity.[14] Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter. The academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and then Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church.[14] In 1892 Trinity College moved to Durham, largely due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke, powerful and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries.[7] Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, which is now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, and 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with men."[15]
In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, orphanages, the Methodist Church, and four colleges (including Trinity College). William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name. At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but eventually he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father.[7] Money from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile (1.6 km) west were completed, and construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935.[16]
Statue of James B. Duke in foreground with Duke Chapel behind
James B. Duke established the Duke Endowment, which provides funds to numerous institutions, including Duke University.

Expansion and growth

Engineering, which had been taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl ever played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942.[17] During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission.[18] In 1963 the Board of Trustees officially desegregated the undergraduate college.[19] Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the civil rights movement. Following Douglas Knight's resignation from the office of university president, Terry Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in 1969, propelling the Fuqua School of Business's opening, the William R. Perkins library completion, and the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs (now the Sanford School of Public Policy). The separate Woman's College merged back with Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke's reputation both nationally and internationally. Interdisciplinary work was emphasized, as was recruiting minority faculty and students. During this time it also became the birthplace of the first Physician Assistant degree program in the United States.[20][21][22] Duke University Hospital was finished in 1980 and the student union building was fully constructed two years later. In 1986 the men's soccer team captured Duke's first National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) championship, and the men's basketball team followed shortly thereafter with championships in 1991 and 1992, then again in 2001 and 2010.
The university's campus spans 8,547 acres (34.59 km2) on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort. Duke's main campus—designed largely by African American architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot (64 m) Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. The forest environs surrounding parts of the campus belie the University's proximity to downtown Durham. Construction projects have updated both the freshmen-populated Georgian-style East Campus and the main Gothic-style West Campus, as well as the adjacent Medical Center over the past five years.

Recent history

Photo of Levine Science Research Center on campus of Duke University
The Levine Science Research Center is the largest single-site interdisciplinary research facility of any American university.[23]
Duke's growth and academic focus have contributed to continuing the university's reputation as an academic and research powerhouse.[24]
In summer 2014, Duke Kunshan University (DKU) opened in Kunshan, China. DKU blends liberal education with Chinese tradition in a new approach to elite higher education in China. The DKU Global Health Research Center will conduct research projects on climate change, health-care policy and TB prevention and control.
In August 2005, Duke established a partnership with the National University of Singapore to develop a joint medical program, which had its first entering class in 2007.[25]
The university is part way through Duke Forward, a seven-year fundraising campaign that aims to raise $3.25 billion by June 30, 2017, to enrich the student experience in and out of the classroom, invest in faculty and support research and initiatives. Every dollar donated to Duke's 10 schools and units, Duke Medicine or university programs and initiatives counts toward the campaign's goal.
Among academic achievements at Duke, three students were named Rhodes Scholars in both 2002 and 2006, a number surpassed only by Harvard in 2002 and the United States Military Academy in 2006.[26][27] Overall, Duke has produced 43 Rhodes Scholars through 2014, including 22 between 1990 to 2011.
Also, the first working demonstration of an invisibility cloak was unveiled by Duke researchers in October 2006.[28] In 2006, three men's lacrosse team members were falsely accused of rape, which garnered significant media attention. On April 11, 2007, North Carolina Attorney General Roy Cooper dropped all charges and declared the three players innocent. Cooper stated that the charged players were victims of a "tragic rush to accuse."
The university has "historical, formal, on-going, and symbolic ties" with the United Methodist Church, but is a nonsectarian and independent institution.[3][29][30][31]

Campus

Complete photo of Duke Chapel on a sunny day
Duke Chapel, an icon for the university, can seat nearly 1,600 people and contains a 5,200-pipe organ.
Duke University owns 254 buildings on 8,547 acres (34.59 km2) of land, which includes the 7,044 acres (28.51 km2) Duke Forest.[4] The campus is divided into four main areas: West, East, and Central campuses and the Medical Center, which are all connected via a free bus service. On the Atlantic coast in Beaufort, Duke owns 15 acres (61,000 m2) as part of its marine lab. One of the major public attractions on the main campus is the 54-acre (220,000 m2) Sarah P. Duke Gardens, established in the 1930s.[4]
Duke students often refer to the campus as "the Gothic Wonderland," a nickname referring to the Collegiate Gothic architecture of West Campus.[32][33] Much of the campus was designed by Julian Abele, one of the first prominent African-American architects and the chief designer in the offices of architect Horace Trumbauer.[34] The residential quadrangles are of an early and somewhat unadorned design, while the buildings in the academic quadrangles show influences of the more elaborate late French and Italian styles. The freshmen campus (East Campus) is composed of buildings in the Georgian architecture style.[4] In 2011, Travel+Leisure listed Duke among the most beautiful college campuses in the United States.[35]
The stone used for West Campus has seven primary colors and seventeen shades of color.[36] The university supervisor of planning and construction wrote that the stone has "an older, more attractive antique effect" and a "warmer and softer coloring than the Princeton stone" that gave the university an "artistic look."[36] James B. Duke initially suggested the use of stone from a quarry in Princeton, New Jersey, but later amended the plans to purchase a local quarry in Hillsborough to reduce costs.[36] Duke Chapel stands at the center of West Campus on the highest ridge. Constructed from 1930 to 1935, the chapel seats 1,600 people and, at 210 feet (64 m) is one of the tallest buildings in Durham County.[37]
In early 2014, the Nicholas School of the Environment opened a new home, Environmental Hall, a five-story, glass-and-concrete building that incorporates the highest sustainable features and technologies, and meets or exceeds the criteria for LEED platinum certification. The School of Nursing in April 2014 opened a new 45,000-square-foot addition to the Christine Siegler Pearson Building. In summer 2014, a number of construction projects were completed or else in full swing, including renovations to the David M. Rubenstein David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library, housed in Duke's original West Campus library building. The project is part of the final phase of renovations to Duke's West Campus libraries that will transform one of the university's oldest and most recognizable buildings into a state-of-the-art research facility. Renovation work began in late 2012; opening is scheduled for summer of 2015.
In 2013 construction projects included transforming buildings like Gross Hall and Baldwin Auditorium, plus new construction such as the Events Pavilion. About 125,000 square feet was updated at Gross Hall, including new lighting and windows and a skylight. Baldwin's upgrades include a larger stage, more efficient air conditioning for performers and audience and enhanced acoustics that will allow for the space to be "tuned" to each individual performance. The 25,000-square-foot Events Pavilion opened to students in 2013 and serves as temporary dining space while the West Campus Union undergoes major renovations. From February 2001 to November 2005, Duke spent $835 million on 34 major construction projects as part of a five-year strategic plan, "Building on Excellence."[38] Completed projects since 2002 include major additions to the business, law, nursing, and divinity schools, a new library, an art museum, a football training facility, two residential buildings, an engineering complex, a public policy building, an eye institute, two genetic research buildings, a student plaza, the French Family Science Center, and two new medical-research buildings.[39]
A building's Gothic-style exterior and grass lawn in foreground
The Gothic Reading Room of Perkins Library

Libraries and museums

Duke Libraries, one of the nation's top 10 private research library systems, includes the Perkins, Bostock, and Rubenstein Libraries on West Campus, the Lilly and Music Libraries on East Campus, the Pearse Memorial Library at the Duke Marine Lab, and the separately administered libraries serving the schools of business, divinity, law and medicine.
Duke's art collections are housed at the Nasher Museum of Art on Central Campus. The museum was designed by Rafael Viñoly and is named for Duke alumnus and art collector Raymond Nasher. The museum opened in 2005 at a cost of over $23 million and contains over 13,000 works of art, including works by William Cordova, Marlene Dumas, Olafur Eliasson, David Hammons, Barkley L. Hendricks, Christian Marclay, Kerry James Marshall, D Alma Thomas, Hank Willis Thomas, Bob Thompson, Kara Walker, Andy Warhol, Carrie Mae Weems, Ai Weiwei, Fred Wilson and Lynette Yiadom Boakye.[40]

West, East, and Central Campuses

West Campus, considered the main campus of the University, houses the majority of the sophomores, along with some juniors and seniors.[41] Most of the academic and administrative centers are located there. Main West Campus, with Duke Chapel at its center, contains the majority of residential quads to the south, while the main academic quad, library, and Medical Center are to the north. The campus, spanning 720 acres (2.9 km2), includes Science Drive, which is the location of science and engineering buildings. The residential quads on West Campus are Craven Quad, Crowell Quad, Edens Quad, Few Quad, Keohane Quad, Kilgo Quad, and Wannamaker Quad.[42] Most of the campus eateries and sports facilities—including the historic basketball stadium, Cameron Indoor Stadium—are on West Campus.[4][43]
Panoramic photo of a row of three-story Gothic style building exteriors
The main West Campus is dominated by Neo-Gothic architecture. Shown here are typical residence halls.
East Campus, the original location of Duke after it moved to Durham,[44] functions as a freshman campus as well as the home of several academic departments. Since the 1995–96 academic year, all freshmen—and only freshmen, except for upperclassmen serving as Resident Assistants—have lived on East Campus, to build class unity. The campus encompasses 97 acres (390,000 m2) and is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from West Campus.[4] The Art History, History, Literature, Music, Philosophy, and Women's Studies Departments are housed on East.[44] Programs such as dance, drama, education, film, and the University Writing Program reside on East. The self-sufficient East Campus contains the freshman residence halls, a dining hall, coffee shop, post office, Lilly Library, Baldwin Auditorium, a theater, Brodie Gym, tennis courts, several disc golf baskets, and a walking track as well as several academic buildings.[44] The East Campus dorms are Alspaugh, Basset, Bell Tower, Blackwell, Brown, East House (formerly known as Aycock), Epworth, Gilbert-Addoms, Giles, Jarvis, Pegram, Randolph, Southgate, and Wilson.[45] Separated from downtown by a short walk, the area was the site of the Women's College from 1930 to 1972.[44]
Panoramic photo of Georgian style buildings lining a grass lawn with a domed auditorium in the background
East Campus, home to all Duke freshmen, features Georgian style architecture. Baldwin Auditorium can be seen on the right side.
Central Campus, consisting of 122 acres (0.49 km2) between East and West campuses, houses around 1,000 sophomores, juniors, and seniors, as well as around 200 professional students in double or quadruple apartments.[46] There are 26 specific houses, accommodating 22 selective living groups (sororities and fraternities), 3 independent houses and 1 administrative house.[46] Central Campus is home to the Nasher Museum of Art, the Freeman Center for Jewish Life, the Center for Muslim Life, the Duke Police Department, the Duke Office of Disability Management, a Ronald McDonald House, and administrative departments such as Duke Residence Life and Housing Services. Central Campus has several recreation and social facilities such as basketball courts, a sand volleyball court, a turf field, barbecue grills and picnic shelters, a general gathering building called "Devil's Den", a restaurant known as "Devil's Bistro", a convenience store called Uncle Harry's, and the Mill Village. The Mill Village consists of a gym and group study rooms.[47][46]
Since 2005, there has been a long-term plan in place to restructure Central Campus over the subsequent 20 to 50 years.[48] The idea is to develop an "academic village" as a key center for the Duke community.[49] This academic village will provide living arrangements for undergraduate, graduate, and professional students and some faculty, plus dining, recreation, and academic support spaces while serving as a living laboratory for sustainability.[48][50]

Key places

A Lilly pond and stoned walkway with various trees in the background
The Sarah P. Duke Gardens attract more than 300,000 visitors each year.
Duke Forest, established in 1931, consists of 7,044 acres (28.51 km2) in six divisions, just west of West Campus.[4] The largest private research forest in North Carolina and one of the largest in the nation,[51] the Duke Forest demonstrates a variety of forest stand types and silvicultural treatments. Duke Forest is used extensively for research and includes the Aquatic Research Facility, Forest Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS-I) research facility, two permanent towers suitable for micrometerological studies, and other areas designated for animal behavior and ecosystem study.[52] More than 30 miles (48 km) of trails are open to the public for hiking, cycling, and horseback riding.[53]
The Duke Lemur Center, located inside the Duke Forest, is the world's largest sanctuary for rare and endangered strepsirrhine primates.[54] Founded in 1966, the Duke Lemur Center spans 85 acres (34 ha) and contains nearly 300 animals of 25 different species of lemurs, galagos and lorises.[55]
Gothic-style four story exterior of a building with castle-like turrets
Entrance to the Medical Center from West Campus
The Sarah P. Duke Gardens, established in the early 1930s, is situated between West Campus and the apartments of Central Campus. The gardens occupy 55 acres (22 ha), divided into four major sections:[56] the original Terraces and their surroundings; the H.L. Blomquist Garden of Native Plants, devoted to flora of the Southeastern United States; the W.L. Culberson Asiatic Arboretum, housing plants of Eastern Asia, as well as disjunct species found in Eastern Asia and Eastern North America; and the Doris Duke Center Gardens. There are five miles (8 km) of allées and paths throughout the gardens.[56]
Duke University Medical Center, bordering Duke's West Campus northern boundary, combines one of the top-rated hospitals[57] and one of the top-ranked medical schools[58] in the U.S. Founded in 1930, the Medical Center occupies 8 million square feet (700,000 m²) in 99 buildings on 210 acres (85 ha).[59]
The Orrin Pilkey research laboratory at the Duke University Marine Lab in Beaufort, NC.
Duke University Marine Laboratory, located in the town of Beaufort, North Carolina, is also technically part of Duke's campus. The marine lab is situated on Pivers Island on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, 150 yards (140 m) across the channel from Beaufort. Duke's interest in the area began in the early 1930s and the first buildings were erected in 1938.[60] The resident faculty represent the disciplines of oceanography, marine biology, marine biomedicine, marine biotechnology, and coastal marine policy and management. The Marine Laboratory is a member of the National Association of Marine Laboratories.[60] In May 2014, the newly built Orrin H. Pilkey Marine Research Laboratory was dedicated.[61]




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Monday, March 2, 2015

blue monday with smilely sally--crayon dress code

four line poem:

fueled by the gas at Sinclair snow,
the earth, the death, the blow,
silence cannot cover a traveler's voice,
the ocean waves' whisper echoes our choice.


Haiku:

happiness is xingfu,
happiness comes from Tai Kong Do,
gossip won't grow fruit.
.
easy and busy,
read, think, write, and share haiku,
that's my happiness.
.
a black, white bearcat,
sitting still, admiring his home,
a bamboo forest.




Carpe Diem Haiku Kai

 Hyde Park Poetry Rally Week 81

Smiling Sally Blue Monday - Crayon Dress!

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